Hi welcome to the forum
My host is GoDaddy, and in the Pre-Installation Check the top (necessary) window says YES for everything. In recommended settings, Display Errors are On (recommended off), and Output Buffering is On (Recommended Off) - could either of those be causing my issue?
Unlikely, but they can easily be changed: http://help.joomla.org/content/view/1945/304/
provides details of the process just replacing register_globals
If this does not work you will need to speak to your host.
HOWEVER! When I get to Step 6 (configuration), enter the site and admin info, and click next, the install seems to freeze. [b]Does this final step take an inordinately long amount of time to complete? I've left the window running for 20+ minutes with the little progress circle spinning in the middle, but it just won't finish the install.
No with the right information to hand it should take less than 5 minutes to complete the whole process.
Edit - Forgot to mention that the hosting is Windows-based, which GoDaddy support says may be part of the issue... something about permissions possibly not being set correctly... does that sound right to you guys?
Can you confirm the server specifications: is it IIS or Apache and what versions of MySQL and PHP are running.
If it is a windows server then you do not need the FTP layer details. Go back and remove these details - or start again.
When you get to the MySQL step make sure to say to overwrite the files, as you do not need to back-up an empty database! (or even better still manually DROP the tables in MySQL first)