I'm not sure if Joomla runs well on MySQL 8.x - the recommended version is still 5.6+/5.7+ (logically including 8.x) but can you try switching back to MySQL 5.x? More to the point, do you see the same errors under MySQL 5.6.x? The switch back may involve restoring a backup to the localhost environment when you're running MySQL 5.x, I don't think the databases can be transferred across when you select the different MySQL version, and the only way is restoring the Akeeba Backup.
Even if Joomla runs fine in MySQL 8, it may be some of your extensions don't.
This is the docs I can find regarding MySQL 8.x and Joomla:
Given you appear to be running this Joomla install on a local server like XAMPP (?) it may make it easier to adjust the MySQL 8 as detailed in the above link (if required).
That stack trace looks like it comes from Debug; can you see if you have debug turned on, in the PHP options (or switch the error reporting to a lower setting like "default")